Genetic information, variation and relationships between organisms (2023)

Biological diversity - biological diversity - is reflected in the large number of species of organisms, the variation of individual properties in a single species, and the variation of cell types in a single multi -celular organism.

The differences between species reflect genetic differences. Differences between individuals within a species may be the result of genetic factors, environmental factors or a combination of both.

A gene is a DNA section in a particular location in a DNACoded genetic informationThis determines the sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis.necessaryIt is the same in all organisms and provides indirect evolution of evolution.

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Genetic diversity within a species can be caused by genetic mutation, chromosomal mutation or random factors associated with meiosis and fertilization. This genetic diversity is worked through natural selection, which means that species adapt better to their environment.

Variation within a species can be measured using differences in the sequence of the DNA base or in the sequence of amino acid proteins.

Biological diversity within a community can be measured using the species and diversity index.

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DNA, genes and chromosomes


Possibilities for the development of skills

In prokaryotic cells, DNA molecules are short, circular and not associated with protein.

In the core of eukaryotic cells, DNA molecules are very long, linear and protein associated as histones. Sincers, a DNA molecule and their associated proteins form a chromosome.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells also contain DNA, which as prokaryotes are short, circular and not associated with protein.

A gene is a DNA base sequence that stops:

  • The sequence of amino acids of a polypeptide
  • A functional RNA (including ribosomal RNA and ARNTs).

A gene occupies a fixed position, which is called locus in a certain DNA molecule.

A sequence of three DNA bases, called Triplet, encodes a specific amino acid. The genetic code is universal, not overlapping and degenerate.

In eukaryotes, much of the nuclear DNA does not find polypeptides. For example, there are several repetitions of results between genes. There is only a few sequences within a gene called exons, code for amino acid sequences.They are separated by one or more coding sequences, which are called introns.

DNA and Protein Synthesis


Possibilities for the development of skills

The concept of genome as a complete phrase of genes in a cell and a proteom as a complete protein area that a cell can produce.

The roller returns, but have for - -d -de -d -in -m ölole.

Transcript as DNA's RNM production. RNA Polymerase role in nucleotides -Nucleotids.

  • In the prokaryotes, transcript results directly to DNA's RNM production.
  • In the case of eukaryotes, transcription in production takes in front of the Arnmm; this is defined as RNM.

Translation as a polypeptide production from the sequence of codons that are transported by the MRNA. Ribosomes, TRNA and ATP papers.

Students should be able to:

  • Remove the base sequence of nucleic acids with the sequence of polypeptide amino acids if you receive data suitable for genetic code
  • Interpret the data from experimental work that examines the role of nucleic acids.

You will be studentsNOYou must remember in certain written and amino acid documents you have encoded.

Genetic diversity can arise from mutation or during meiosis


Possibilities for the development of skills

Genetic mutations imply a change in base chromosomal sequence. You may appear spontaneously during DNA replication and include base elimination and base change. A change in amino acid -encoded sequence. Mutagenic means can increase the mutation rategenetics.

Mutations in the number of chromosomes may arise spontaneously from chromosomal disjunction during meiosis.

Meiosis produces daughters that genetically differ from each other.

The meiosis process only detailed enough to show how:

  • Two nuclear divisions usually lead to the formation of four daughters of daughters from a single diploid cell
  • Genetically different daughters are resulting from independent separation of homologous chromosomes
  • The intersection between homologous chromosomes leads to an additional genetic variation between daughters cells.

Students should be able to:

  • Complete diagrams that show the content of cell chromosomes after the first and second meiiotic division when chromosomal content of the main cell is administered
  • Explain the different result of mitosis and meiosis
  • Recognize where meiosis appears when information about an unknown life cycle is given
  • Explain how the random fertilization of haploid players further increases genetic variation within a species.
Me dStudents were able to examine meiosis in object patients, which were prepared for proper plants or tissues.MS 0,5Students could:
  • Use expression 2NorteCalculation of the possible number of different combinations of chromosomes according to meiosis, without crossing
  • Remove a formula to calculate the possible number of different combinations of chromosomes after random fertilization of two played.
WoNorteIt is the number of couples of homologous chromosomes.

Genetic diversity and adaptation


Possibilities for the development of skills

Genetic diversity as the number of different genes in a population.

Genetic diversity is a factor that allows natural selection.

The principles of natural selection in the development of populations.

  • The random mutation can lead to new alleles of a gene.
  • Many mutations are harmful, but in certain environments, the new allele of a gene can benefit its owner, which leads to a stronger success of reproduction.
  • The advantageous allele is inherited by next generation members.
  • As a result, the new allele increases the frequency of the population in many generations.

The selection of the direction, exemplary through antibiotic resistance in bacteria and stabilizing selection through the weight of human birth.

Natural selection leads to species that are best adapted to the environment. These adjustments can be anatomical, physiological or behavioral.

Students should be able to:

  • Use unknown information to explain how selection with changes within a population of a species
  • Interpret data related to the effect of selection in the generation of changes in populations
  • Show to understand that adaptation and selection are important factors for evolution and contribute to the diversity of living organisms.

MS 2.5

Students could use a logarithmic scale when it comes to data on a large number of bacteria in a culture.

Practically required 6:Use of aseptic techniques to examine the effect of antimicrobial substances on microbial growth. Mich

Species and taxonomy


Possibilities for the development of skills

Two organisms are the same if they can produce fertile children.Corto behavior as a precursor necessary for successful mating. The article for species recognition.

A phylogenetic classification system attempts to organize species in groups based on their origins and evolutionary relationships. It uses a hierarchy in which smaller groups in larger groups are placed among groups without overlap. Each group is called taxón (plural taxa).

A hierarchy includes taxa: dominion, kingdom, philosophy, class, order, family, gender and species.

All types is usually identified by a binomial that exists, for example, in the name of its genre and kind,Homo sapiens.

Remember various taxonomic systems, such as the three domain systems or five kingdoms,NObe required.

Students must be capableto thankThis progress in genom immunology and sequencing helps to clarify evolutionary relationships between organisms.

Biodiversity within a community


Possibilities for the development of skills

Biological diversity may be related to a variety of habitats from a small local habitat to Earth.

Species richness is a measure of the number of different types in a community.

A diversity rate describes the relationship between the number of species in a community and the number of individuals in any type.

Calculation of a diversity index ( ) the formula

Wo = Total number of organisms of all types

y = Total number of organisms of all types.

Agricultural techniques reduce biological diversity. The balance between preservation and agriculture.

MS 2.3

Students can receive data on which a diversity rate can be calculated and the importance of the calculated value of the index can be interpreted.

Diversity Investigation


Possibilities for the development of skills

Genetic diversity within or between species can be done comparing:
  • The frequency of measurable or observable properties
  • DNA -Basissequenz
  • The base -base sequence
  • The sequence of amino acids of DNA and RNA protein.
Students should be able to:
  • Interpret data regarding similarities and differences in DNA base sequences and proteinamic acid sequences to suggest relationships between different organisms within a species and between species
  • I appreciate that genetic technology has caused a change in research methods of genetic diversity. The conclusion of DNA differences made with measurable or observable characteristics has been replaced by direct DNA sequences.

    Know about genetic technologiesNObe tested.

Implement quantitative examinations of variation within a species:

  • Collect random random test data
  • Calculate an average value of the collected data and the standard deviation of this average
  • Interpret the average values and their standard deviations.

You will be studentsNOYou must calculate standard deviations in written documents.

A k

Students could:

  • Project appropriate methods to ensure a random sample
  • Make random samples in a single population
  • Use random samples to examine the effect of position on leaf growth.

MS 1.2

Students could use standard scientific calculators to calculate or specify the average values of the collected data.

MS 1.10

Students were able to calculate and interpret the default deviation values of their average values.

Ex -3.3 Organisms exchange substances with their surroundings

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Genetic information, variation and relationships between organisms (1)

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