Mutagens definition, types (physical, chemical, biological) (2023)

A mutagenic is a physical or chemical remedy that can causeMutationin DNA and increases its frequency on the natural background level.

  • You can damage DNA directly due to your actions, which usually leads to replication errors.
  • Mutations occur accidentally, that is, not according to the organism's requirements. Environmental factors cause most mutations, but can also be generated in the laboratory using chemicals, radiation or physical stimuli.
  • These mutans can be carcinogens, as numerous animal mutations can lead to cancer, although not necessarily in all cases.
  • All mutans have characteristic mutation signatures, while some chemicals can become mutagenic due to cellular processes.
Mutagens definition, types (physical, chemical, biological) (1)


Mutk The type

Mutans can be divided into three main types according to their origin. They are:

  1. Physical mutagenic
  2. Chemical mutagenic
  3. Biological mutagenic

Physical mutagenic


  1. High energy radiation
  2. Temperature increase

A. Radiation

Two categories are important rays in mutagenesis. They are:

  1. Ionizing radiation:X rays and rays gamma; alpha and beta rays; electrons, neutrons, protons and other particles of fast motion
  2. Non -mining radiation:Ultraviolet and visible light.

Ionizing radiation

The process caused by ionizing radiation is mainly unknown to mutation. Ionizing radiation leads to chromosomal changes, such as breach, exclusion, bis, investment and translocation, which damages the backbone of DNA of Poly Sugar Phosphate.

The active function of oxygen is expected during the interval of the DNA molecule caused by ionizing radiation, since oxygen is necessary to produce H2Ö2Y Ho2, which can lead to breaking the DNA molecule in radiated water.

The most common laboratory sources include the EcoBalt-60 UNDSCESIUM-137.

Non -minor radiation

Ultraviolet light (UV) is a non -ionizing radiation that can cause a mutation.

The most effective ultraviolet wavelength to induce mutations is approximately 2,600 to this. This is a better absorbed wavelength and in which proteins absorb little energy.

Some possibilities, such as mutations in UV radiation, include the elimination of the base, the breakage of the tape, the reticulation and the formation of nucleotide diameters.

UV radiation are three species:

UV-AIt has a wavelength of 320 nm (almost visible area) and it is known that it causes the dimmary of pimidines. This special form of pyrimidimeterization alters DNA structure and prevents the creation of the replication fork during the replication process.It may have negative health effects.

UV-BIt has a wavelength of 290-320 nm and is very fatal to DNA.

UV-CIt has a wavelength of 180-290 nm, which is absorbed mainly by the ozone layer and is the most fatal and most common cancer.

B. Temperate

The speed of all chemical reactions is influenced by temperature.

A temperature increase of 10 ° C twice or tripled the mutation rate.

Thermal stability of DNA and the speed with which other substances react are influenced by temperature, which also destroys hydrogen bridge and phosphodiester bonds in the DNA.

Chemical mutagenic

It is known that many chemical compounds increase gene change.

Auerbach and Robson experience the manDrosophila MelanogasterIn 1947, the use of mustard gas and related substances such as nitrogen and sulfur, mustard oil and chloracetone were the first to cause chemical mutations.

Chemical mutans influence chromosomal DNA in two ways:

  1. Direct change
  2. Copy errors

Chemical mutans can be divided into different categories, such as.:

  1. Basic analoga
  2. Replacement
  3. Metal ions
  4. Landlord

A. graduates

  • These substances have structural properties with bases such as purines and pyrimidines.
  • 5-BROMOURACIL AND Aminopurine are the two most common base analogs, which are seen as chemical mutages.
  • Base analogs are integrated into the DNA structure during replication due to structural similarities between these active ingredients and DNA bases.
  • Like adenine, aminopurine C or T may correspond to some bases (although the mating of bases with C is rare).
  • Some additional basic anologists, which include urethane -triazine, caffeine (in coffee, tea and refreshment drinks), phenol and carcinogenic, acridins (proclavin etc.), are also mutagen.


  • Interaction molecules have a hydrophobic heterocyclic ring structure that resembles the basic torque structure.
  • These funds are incorporated into DNA propellers, which leads to a disturbance with transcription, replication and mutation, a change in change of frame.

Part of the common interaction is:

  • Borm of ethidio
  • Proflavina
  • Acridine orange
  • Actinomicina d
  • Below


  • Reactive oxygen (ERO) species are produced by mineral ions such as nickel, chromium, cobalt, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and iron, which leads to DNA hypermethylation. This promotes DNA damage and hinders the repair repair processDNA repair repair repair repair
  • For many organisms, certain inorganic chemicals, such as manganese chloride, are mutagenic because they bind to calcium and impair the integrity of the chromosome structure.

D. Signs of alkylistance

These chemicals cause damage to DNA inducing alkyl groups.

The introduction of the lean group increases ionization, which leads to bases mating errors that end up causing DNA chain holes and have a direct mutagonal effect on the DNA molecule.

Some of the common means of alkylation are:

  • nitric acid
  • Ethylnitrosato
  • Methilidrazin
  • Bulletproof
  • Formaldehyde
  • Vinylcloride
  • Epoxide
  • Dimethyl is Diethylsulfono
  • Metil and Etyosulfonato (MMS and EMS)
  • Nitrosoguanidine (von)

However, these substances can be eliminated from DNA by the cleaning process during the DNA repair process.

Biological mutagenic


  1. Transposons and Insertion Sequences (IS)
  2. Virus
  3. bacteria


  • They are DNA units that perform the relocation and auto -feed multiplication of the DNA fragment.
  • The insertion sequences are either the shortest transposons (between 10 and 50 pairs of long bases).
  • Since and the transposion walks around DNA, both are known as jumping genes. Gene functionality is interrupted when transposons are inserted into chromosomal DNA.
  • The information for enzymatic transport that helps create the new DNA transposition position is encoded by IS and transposons.

In general, there are three types of transposons. They are:

  1. Transposones replicativos:The transposons that maintain the original place and translate their copy.
  2. Conservative transposons:The original transposon translates.
  3. Transposition Transposition:These transposons are translated by RNA intermediate products.

B. Virus

  • The insertion of viral DNA in the genome can lead to interruption of genetic function.
  • Viruses cause deletions, insertions and points, including the basis of substitutions.
  • It is reported that stimulation of repair mechanisms susceptible to cell errors is connected to virus -induced mutagenesis.
  • Virus sarcomaIt was reported that he induced cancer.

C. Bacteria

  • Reactive oxygen species are produced by some bacteria that cause inflammation, such as:Helicobacter pyloriWhat damage to DNA deals and reduces DNA repair.
  • By increasing the induced, induced, induced Citidine, an AIDS, a DNA/RNA processing enzymeH. PyloriAffects the integrity of the genome.

Positive effects of mutaging

  1. Evolution

Changes in genes, which have finally contributed to the development of life over time, are caused by mutations.

Natural selection has enabled populations with a variety of mutations to be upset, while populations that could not adapt to environmental changes or develop based on these changes.

One of these genetic stages of evolution implies the development of hair color for insects and animals for camouflage.

  1. Adjustment

Apolipoprotein A1-Milano (or A1M APO), a mutated protein, is found in a small Italian group.

Normal apolipoprotein is the protein responsible for cholesterol transport.

In addition to eliminating the level of cholesterol and dissolving the plates of the Italian population, the mutated form of apolipoprotein.

  1. Resistance to antibiotics in bacteria

Mutations in many bacteria allow to support the presence of antibiotic drugs. Mutations lead to antibiotic resistant bacterial strains.

Negative effects of mutagenic

  1. A single meaningless mutation provides sickle cells of anemia in germ cell protein, which carries oxygen, negatively influenced by this change.
  2. Some pesticides, including Rotten, Paraquat and maneuvers, can cause genetic mutations, such as bases by the base couple, which can lead to neurological diseases such as Parkinson's.
  3. Retinoblastoma or retina tumors in children.
  4. Genetic disorders include Tay-Sachs disease, phenylketonuria, color blindness and cystic fibrosis.
Mutagens definition, types (physical, chemical, biological) (2)

Mutageability test

The identification of connections that can alter the genetic composition of somatic and/or germ cells is the objective of mutageic tests that influence regulatory decisions.

Genetic changes usually manifest after a long time after exposure to mutagenic, in contrast to most other types of toxicity.

In general, three end points are evaluated to provide an appropriate assessment of mutagenal potential. They are:

  1. Genetic mutation
  2. Structural chromosomal aberrations
  3. Numerical chromosomal aberrations

In vitro and vivo studies are usually used:

In -Vitro Studies

  1. Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test -Test
  2. Chromosomes -Mammaleters -cão
  3. Mammal mutation test
  4. UDS in mammalian cells

In -Vivo Studies

  1. Rodent mutation test
  2. Hereditary mouse translocation test
  3. Specific Mouse Test -Locus
  4. Sisters -Healthy Exession Analysis (SCE) in Spermatogonia
  5. UDS Test in Hodenzellen
  6. Somatic testing of genetic mutation and germ cells of transgenic rodents

Instead of -

It is one capable of inactivating a mutagenic that can prevent the mutagenic from acting or avoiding the interaction of a mutagenic with DNA.

It may activate, inhibit or indirectly inactivate directly or indirectly inactive DNA repair, recombination and replication enzymes.

Animutagen can be like:

  1. disqualification
  2. Bio-antiitimutagene
  1. disqualification

These are connections that affect genes before the mutagenic due to enzymatic or chemical interaction.

  1. Bio-antiitimutagene

They are real antimutages that suppress mutation according to mutagenic damage.


The main mechanisms of antitogenesis can be widely described as below:

  1. Chemical inactivation of the enzyme
  2. Prevention of active species formation
  3. To fly
  4. Radical antioxidante radical
  1. Chemical inactivation of the enzyme

Several substances can inactivate numerous mutagenic directly because they are reagents and not only act in DNA, but also in proteins and enzymes.

Cytochrome P450 enzyme inductors and inhibitors, including Indol-3-Carbinol, were used with antimutagenic and anti-genic activities.


Helloed oh benches -Histosianat

Antioxidants such as 2, 3-TTR-4-Hydroxy Anisol (BHA).

  1. Prevention of active species formation

Numerous genogenic or genotoxic carcinogenic should be activated metabolic or biologically before they become an electrophilic species (active species) and can interact with DNA.

Although these processes usually occur in the liver, there are more and more indications that other organs, especially GIT, can also activate metabolism.


N-nitro compounds usually result from an interaction between secondary or tertiary amines and nitrite in the stomach.

  1. To fly

Several dismunegenic can join or adsorb dietary mutagens to remove them.

Mutaga usually does not change at this stage, but cannot interact with DNA.


Chlorophyll and some eating fibers.

  1. Antioxidants and elimination of free radicals

Free radicals can damage DNA, lead to mutageity and cytotoxicity and, consequently, decisively for cancer development.

Reactive oxygen species (ERO) can cause mutations and prevent DNA repair, which inactivates some tumor and leads to cancer.

Number antimutagenic substances have antioxidant or radical elimination properties and can quickly neutralize most free radicals, especially those with a short life.


Oh radical.

Antimutagenic compounds

The main classes include antimutagenic compounds:

  1. Vitamins:
  • It was found that vitamins C and and against chromosomal aberrations are induced by doxorubicin are antimutagen.
  • Vitamins A, C and E and were induced to mutagenesis, which were induced by methylazoxi -metanol (MAM), it was reported.SalmonellaTyphimurium -stamm Ta100.
  • In the case of administration with a pesticide, vitamin C (ascorbic acid) significantly reduced the frequency of pesticide -induced mutations.
  1. flavonoids
  • Phenolic flavonoids of luteoline, caemic and other hydroxyl groups and all flavors show antimutagenic properties.
  • It has been found that isoflavone and flavonoid glycoside have strong antimutagenic properties.
  • It has been found that hispiduline and hortensin have an antimutagenal influence if they were tested against Anthrac 2-amino, a connection caused by Aflatoxin B1.
  • Citric juice flavonoids have hiring and antimutagenic properties.
  • SalmonellaTyphimurium was used to examine the antimutagenic activity of all these flavonoids to various mutagenic.
  1. Antraquinonas
  • Aloe BarboreszenzIt was found that anthraquinone has antimutagenic properties.
  • Anthron, Acidana and Xanthone, chemically chemically similar to anthraquinone, trained anti -phios and anthron as an example of higher performance.
  • All napthaquinone is powerful antimutagenic.
  1. Phenol compounds
  • Certain phenol chemicals, such as ellagic acid, available in strawberries, raspberries, grapes, walnuts, etc.
  • The antimutagenic properties of green tea and black tea were attributed to substances such as Epicatech, the () Epicatech gallery, (-) epigalocatechines and (-) epigalocin gallat.
  • Green tea antimutagenic properties may interrupt the frequency of replacing sister chromatids, which are induced by cigarette smoking.
  • It has been found that phenol, curcumin and eugenol, which is produced by direct effect, which is produced by direct effect, as produced n-methyl-n '-nitro-nitro-nitro-magnidine.
  • Eugenol inhibits mutagenesis induced by tobacco in the AMES test.
  1. Carotenoid
  • It is known that carotenoids influence the activation of promising.
  • The antimutagenic activity of β-carotic, condoxant, β-carotin-8-axa-carotinal and method of the method of 8-Sports-β-carotene showed a dose-dependent decrease in mutageity.
  • Erythroxidiol, a connection, similar to a diterpenoid that is isolatedHere Agada, showed an anti -timing and anti -cancer action.
  • Pulcherrimines A, B, C and D, four new Dibenzoat Diterpenes, which are isolated in the rootsCesalpinia SchönIt was found that it was active in bad tension in the DNA repair.
  1. Cumarinas
  • Animutagen compounds such as Cumarine, Umbelberone and 8 methods of different plant sources were identified.
  • Psorals ofPS ORAL EA Corylifolia, Imperator and ostol deSelinum MonniereIt can reduce the mutageity caused by pyreno benzo [α].
  1. Tannin
  • The antioxidant properties of some tannins are crucial to prevent oxidative damage such as lipid peroxidation for their hiring and antimingogenic skills.
  • Catechin, elagic acid and gallus acid have anti -mutogenic properties against mutagenic mutagenic caused by known mutagenics.
  1. Hormonelles steroids
  • Synthetic derivatives of β-ostradiol-ethinil-ostradiol and masternol, both frequently found in contraceptive tablets, were strong muta inhibitors acting in nanomolar doses.
  • Testosterone, β-esradiol and ductile elegant stamp hormones were in experiments that use external, antimute and co-colombinogen metabolic activation mechanism.
  1. Saponina
  • It was found that the ginsensa -aponin -metabolitis against class -induced class [α] were induced by human intestinal bacteria.
  1. Marine products
  • A large number of mutagenics have the potential to cause mutations in their ability to cause mutationsSalmonellaTyphimurium for certain secondary metabolites that prevail in sea types.
  • Elaatol and obtusol are two antimutagenic substances that are discovered in a rabbit extract.
  • Using a Study of Antimitation, Green AlgaeCymopolia BarbieIt was used to isolate Cimobarbatol and 4-Isocimobatol.
  1. Different connections
  • Organ compounds available in the goat extract with considerable antimutagenic activity include ajen and one of the derivatives of alicin.
  • It has been shown that many other different subgroups of phytocompression, including caffeine, trigoneta and fiperin, have antimutagenic activities.
  • Isolated fromArrival Amazonas, Xanthones like Eupanthon and 1.5-di-hydroxy-8 metoxantxanton show a significant antimutogenic effect against anthracene and EMS 2-amino.
  • on aSalmonellaMutation testing, a 80% lemon grass extract (Cymbopogón Citrate) It was verified that it was antimutagenic against several recognized mutagenics.
  • Essential lemon oil has an antimutagenic effect against blinitrate and microns cloons, induced by cyclophosphamide and chromosomal aberration. This oil is part of grass tea in the center and southern India.

Food products like anti -timing

  • Demuteoogenic inhibitors inhibitors of tumor growth diet later in the carcinogenesis process.
  • It was found that some spices and vegetables were regularly recorded, including turmeric, mustard, green leafy vegetables and Allium species, antimutagenic and previous properties.
  • A human intervention test, in which several carotenoids are used in plant products, showed that the addition of tomato, carrot or spinach products significantly reduced the amount of damage to lymphocytes -DNA.
  • Use ofSalmonellaTyphimurium TA100- and TA1535 tribes, the fallen blue extract inhibited the mutageity caused by direct mutants, such as n-methyl-nitro-nitro-nitro-nitro-nitro -oganidine.
  • In the host -mediated study and DNA repair experiment, casein showed a high antimutogenic effect in vivo and ex vivo.
  • Yogurt and Guave (Legal Guajava) It is reported that they are more anti -tin.
  • It was found that the mechanism of the effects of antimutagenic mushrooms occurred due to direct chemical interaction with mutagens.
  • Process treatments A Asapped and turmeric suppress the mutageity that depends on the microsomal activation of the 2 fluores law.
  • It is reported that the extract of the Indian spinach leaves, curcumin and eugenol, there is phenol in saffron and nail.
  • In the AMES test, alkyl resorcinin substances, amphipril substances usually showed anti -anti -nominations in wheat grains.

Read too:

  • Replication of semi -conservative DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  • DNA replication: definition, enzymes, steps, applications
  • Week for pregnancy (development of baby and body, advice)
  • Mutation, causes, mechanisms, active ingredients and meaning
  • Definition of the cell cycle, phases, regulation and control points


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  2. Online Biology. (2022).Mutagenic.
  3. Dixit M. and Kumar A. (2018) .Chapter 1: Mutagenese, genetic genetic disorders and diseases.
  4. National Institute for Human Genom Research (NIH). (2022) .Mutagenic.
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  6. SLARDAR R., JAIN M, R. and Valani D. (2018) .Chapter Dez - MutagenityTest: Regulatory Guidelines and Current
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